The mainstay of the German bombers was the Heinkel He-111, a two-engined, medium range bomber that carried roughly 5,000 pounds of ordinance. It was a level bomber designed for attacking tactical targets as part of a Blitzkrieg campaign, sort of flying artillery. Its payload was not heavy enough nor its range long enough for sustained operations against civilian targets. Other German bombers, like the Dornier Do-17 and the Junkers Ju-88, were similarly excellent tactical aircraft, highly adaptable to battlefield conditions, but not suitable for strategic missions.
In contrast, the Americans and the British had developed heavies four-engined, heavily gunned aircraft that could fly great distances to attack the enemy at home. The Allies believed that the heavies were capable of winning a war alone. The fighter aircraft were a secondary adjunct to the bombers.
Goering was desperate to get back into the good graces of Hitler after failing to destroy the RAF during the summer of 1940. The misguided attack on London by a lost He-111 on August 24 prompted a retaliatory attack by RAF Bomber Command on the night of August 26. While the RAF caused negligible damage, Hitler was incensed and ordered attacks to hit London on September 4.
The first heavy raids on London came on September 7. 300 bombers escorted by 600 fighters came over London starting in the afternoon. They caused great damage to many parts of London and other cities, started major fires on the London docks, and killed over 400 people.
This was the first of 58 consecutive nights of bombing attacks on London. Air raid shelters were totally inadequate and the populace took refuge in the underground stations. With little water, no bathrooms, and overcrowded with people, the stations were ill suited for a sustained stay, but the people nevertheless turned the Blitz into a glorious battle for survival. Unfortunately for Goerings prestige, the Luftwaffes efforts did not break the will of the Londoners to carry on the fight. Productivity in war related industries faltered, but never seriously dipped.
The British discovered knickbein (crooked leg,) the German guidance system for their bombers. They figured out how to misdirect or jam the frequency to confuse the bombers. Over 1,300 antiaircraft guns ringed London, but without proximity fuses introduced in 1943, they mostly were there to boost public morale.
By October 1940, some 250,000 Londoners were homeless, and many moved in with friends or relatives for the duration of the war. Housing was critically short, but London continued to function as a capital and as city.
Small shelters of corrugated iron were distributed. Homes with yards were encouraged to dig larger shelters that could hold a Morrison shelter, which could sustain the collapse of building on itself. Few of the Morrison shelters were available.
On the night of November 14-15, 1940, almost 500 bombers dropped high explosives and incendiaries on Coventry. A major war materiel production center, it was a prime target for strategic bombing. 550 people were killed, 1,000 injured, and 50,000 homes were damaged or destroyed. The bombed out Cathedral became a symbol German aggression. Coventry became a rallying cry for the far heavier raids on Germany by the Americans by day and the British by night after 1942.
The blitz fell all over the British Isles, and even Belfast in 1941. Attacks hit the industrial cities of the north, the ports along the southern coast, Scotland, and Wales. Throughout the winter of 1940-41, the Germans returned by night over London. The heaviest raids came on the night of May 10-11, 1941. 2,000 fires were started; 1,212 were killed and 1,769 injured.
By the end of the summer of 1941, the raids tapered off, as the aircraft were needed in Greece and the Eastern Front. Death from the air would come in periodic raids throughout the war, then the V-1 and V-2 strikes in 1944.
The Blitz killed over 41,000 Londoners, injured over 49,000, and destroyed 46,000 dwellings. Buckingham Palace and the House of Commons were hit, creating a bind between the Royal Family, the government, and the common people who were suffering the most.