Occupation and Resistance in Europe, 1939-1945

From the time of Hitler's appointment to Chancellor, men and women lived and died resisting German occupation. Resistance groups sprang up in every occupied country, and several organizations in Germany herself. Their members succeeded and failed in all sorts of activities against the Third Reich.

Prelude to War: Germany

Europe was in chaos after the First World War. Tens of millions were dead. Large parts of France and Germany were completely destroyed, including France's major source of coal and much of their farmland. The Total War that consumed so many lives had also consumed the combatants' thirst for war.

Prelude to War: France

France suffered in World War I more than any other Western combatant. Most of the fighting on the Western Front took place on her soil, and she lost millions of men in trench warfare.

Prelude to War: Soviet Union

The prospect of Communist Russia terrified the Western democracies in 1918. Britain, France and America sent troops to occupy Russian ports and remained until the defeat of the White Russians in 1920. They left a country that was forming a government that many leftists hailed around the world.

The Post-War World

The end of the Second World War brought many photo opportunities for the victors. The Soviets and the Western Allies had promoted the concept of an antifascist brotherhood during the war, and photos were taken all over the world of the Allies embracing and celebrating their victory.

Poland in World War II

The world in August 1939 was a world that held its breath. Fighting had ended in Spain, and the war in China had stagnated. But few people believed war would be avoided.

Planning the Normandy Invasion, 1942-1944

The Phoney War, September 1939 - May 1940

After the initial terror of the Polish campaign, everyone expected heavy combat, like the summer of 1914. The British Expeditionary Force landed in France, British children were sent to Canada or the countryside; At various times, neutral Belgium and Holland braced for invasion.

The Philippines Campaign, October 20, 1944 - August 1945

The Philippines had suffered under the Japanese occupation. A highly effective guerrilla campaign controlled sixty percent of the islands, mostly jungle and mountain areas. United States Army General Douglas MacArthur had supplied them by submarine, and sent reinforcements and officers.

The Philippines Campaign, December 1941 - April 1942

More than any other Allied garrison attacked on December 7, 1941, the Philippines were an important target for the Imperial Japanese High Command. Japanese Navy and Army bombers from Formosa attacked in the late morning, and achieved the same success their comrades were enjoying over Pearl Harbor.

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